Gauging the effects of the Eastern Partnership: Democratization efforts in Georgia

[2] Lukashenko eventually declined the invitation due to the pledged cold shoulder from Czech President – Václav Klaus. Spiegel Online (2009). Europe’s New Eastern Friend.

[3] BBC, the (2009). EU launches ‘Eastern Partnership’

[4] Council of the European Union (2009). Joint Declaration of the Prague Eastern Partnership Summit, Brussels, 7 May 2009 8435/09 (Presse 78)

[5] Freedom in the World 2008. (2014, November 13). Retrieved from

[6] Kurlantzick, J. (2011, May 19). The Great Democracy Meltdown. Retrieved from

[7] The Economist (2019). The retreat of global democracy stopped in 2018

[8] 9.87 points in 2018.

[9] Data for 2009 is missing due to the biennial nature of index prior to 2010.

The Economist. The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index.

[10] Schimmelfennig, F., & Sedelmeier, U. (2004). Governance by conditionality: EU rule transfer to the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of European Public Policy, 11(4), 661-679. doi:10.1080/1350176042000248089

[11] Action Plans are political documents signed by the EU and a partner country usually for a 5-year term (term can vary). To ensure a smooth implementation of the Action Plan’s mutually agreed objectives, the EU provides financial incentives and support for the reforms (stemming from the objectives) and annually monitors and benchmarks the results.

[12] Boonstra, J., & Shapovalova, N. (2010). The EU’s Eastern Partnership: one year backwards.

[13] European Commission (2010). Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2009: Progress Report Georgia

[14] Transparency International (2011). The annual Report 2010.

[15] European Commission (2010). C(2010) 3330 final. Annual Action Programme 2010 in favour of Georgia

[16] European Commission (2011). C(2011) 4966 final. Annual Action Programme 2010 in favour of Georgia  Brussels

[17] Freedom House (2013). Georgia report 2013.

[18] (2016). Ex-PM Ivanishvili on election results, ‘informal governance’ and competitors of GD

[19] European Commission (2016). Association Implementation Report on Georgia

[20] Korosteleva, E. (2017). Eastern Partnership: bringing “the political” back in.

[21] Lannon, E. (2015). More for more or less for less: From the rhetoric to the implementation of European Neighbourhood Instrument in the Context of the 2015 ENP review. IEMed Overview”, European Institute of the Mediterranean, Barcelona.

[22] European Commission (2017). Association Implementation Report on Georgia

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